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Saturday, October 26, 2019

10:19:00 AM

Role of multiple intelligence in students' motivation towards learning


The application of multiple intelligence theory is wider as a framework of research in teaching and learning. It has various implications for teachers to address the needs of their students in classrooms. Nasab & Ghafournia (2016) found that all eight intelligence have their own needs in society for productive functions of different elements. Therefore, multiple intelligence have the paramount importance in education. First and foremost, applying multiple intelligence ensures to change traditional education systems which emphasis only two intelligence namely verbal and mathematical. The students with intelligence other than verbal and mathematical intelligence show lack of motivation in carrying out learning tasks. Multiple intelligence take into account a wider range of talents to be explored and developed.  Therefore, teachers need to select and organize learning activities and tasks which cater to the needs of the students with intelligence in other areas as well than linguistics and mathematics. Learning activities and tasks incorporating multiple intelligence not only excite students to take part in activities but also reinforce learning through the same material in a variety of ways. By applying a variety of learning activities embedded with multiple intelligence, teaching can facilitate students to be engaged deeply in understanding of the subject matter. The students enter into classroom with different sets of learning needs on the basis of their dominating intelligence. The students in a classroom have their own sets of mental strengths and weaknesses. These sets determine the level of easiness or difficulty for them to from the presented material in a particular manner.
The content or subject matter prescribed have the potential to get students more involved if multiple intelligence are addressed because that will be more appealing and motivating. Since, motivation is a key factor in learning therefore, students in classroom may be facilitated while making learning activities highly practical through tabooing students’ intelligence and gearing their motivation to their needs. One student may enhance his/her level of motivation up by watching a movie in classroom while another may be motivated to play a role for any conversation. This technique suits the schools where one teacher teaches a class the same subject throughout the year. The teaching based on multiple Intelligence maximizes learners' academic achievements and enhances their performance. It implies that teachers, planners and materials developers need to take this level of personal differences into account in their professional practices.
Murray & Moorey, (2012) are of the view that applying multiple intelligence in classroom provides choices for the students which enable them to identify their personal qualities, learning style. Resultantly, they feel that they are valued for their personal achievement. In order to cater to the needs of students with a range of multiple intelligence in diverse classrooms, teachers need to differentiate the teaching–learning process to create an inclusive learning environment. Classrooms with differentiated learning and inclusiveness help teachers to more effectively meet the needs of all students. The application of Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory promotes an inclusive environment by valuing that all individuals have strengths in different areas. While engaging in learning activities based on multiple intelligence, students identify the tasks which motivates and allowing them access to explore their strengths and abilities. The eight intelligence identified by Gardner can be used individually or in conjunction with one another to enable students to identify their preferred style of learning. Utilizing strategies that accommodate students’ multiple intelligence in the classroom enables the teacher to create an inclusive classroom environment in relation to multiple intelligence. This ensures that teaching in a variety of ways to cater for individual differences and ensures education is accessible for all.  

Saturday, August 17, 2019

8:25:00 AM

Teaching is a process to involve students in meaningful learning activities


 Teaching is basically a step by step process including three major stages including planning, implementation and evaluation.  In the following, steps of the process of teaching are discussed in detail.
Planning
The very basic step in the process of teaching is planning which includes setting different levels of objectives for teaching. Objective are the possible measurable outputs that students are expected to demonstrate by the end of the teaching. The teachers in order to achieve the objectives have to support students in learning how think critically and understand the basic concepts of the subject matter being addressed. After setting objectives, content is select to achieve the objectives in a particular class. While selecting content the teacher needs to keep in mind the relevancy, suitability of content selected for the particular age level, interest of the students and appropriate amount of content to be taught. Next step in planning is to select learning activities appropriate to the selected content and age level of the students. At last stage of the planning is to design assessment techniques to check the attainment of the set objective and plan for further improvement of the teaching process.    
Implementation
The effective plans are those which can be easily implemented in classrooms. A template for implementation of the plan may involve five steps namely anticipatory set, introduction and exposure to the new topic/concept, guided practice, independent practice and sum up of the lesson. In the first step of the teaching as named anticipatory set, the teacher tries to engage students in teaching, connect their prior learning, share what students are expected to learn, explain how they will work out and connect their future learning. The next step in implementation stage is introduction of new material which is about providing direct instruction, develop new skills among the learners and check for understanding level of the student. In guided practice, the teacher facilitates students to practice their new learning while in independent practice, students are provided with opportunities apply their learning in comparatively challenging tasks. At the last stage, the teacher carries out overall assessment and sums up the lesson.
For this process of implementation, Barufaldi (2002) presented a model of teaching namely 5E model of teaching. 5Es are engage, explore, explain, elaborate and evaluate. In the first step as named engage where a teacher creates interest among the students, elicit their prior knowledge of the topic, set parameters for focus and frames the idea. Second step is called explore where the teachers involves students in exposure to key concepts, makes students discover new skill, students may probe, inquire and raise questions, challenge their thinking and develop understanding. In explanation, students are given opportunities to construct new knowledge on the basis of new explorations. Students communicate their new knowledge to each other and convert informal language into formal language. The forth E stands for elaborate where tasks are assigned such a way that the students apply their new learning in another similar situation. Application skills are intended to develop among the students in this step. The students here communicate new understanding with formal language. The fifth E in last step is the evaluation of students understanding where self, peer or teacher evaluation is carried out. The students demonstrate their understanding and newly learnt skills through open ended responses. It is the stage where students are expected to show evidence of academic accomplishment.  
Evaluation
In this stage of the process of teaching, teacher evaluates the teaching in classroom through a critical reflection on the activities performed in classroom. This stage serves two purposes as one is to look back into the classroom teaching and highlight positive points in teaching and identify need improvement points of the teaching process. The second is passing a judgment on the way students performed during the teaching process so that next time what needs to be done differently can be identified so that students will be engaged in meaningful learning environment.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

9:46:00 AM

Assess-Teach-Evaluate Model


           It is a model to address the issues related to testing and measurement. The Assess-Teach-Evaluate Model has four steps to cater to the needs of the all the students in classroom. First step is to define the behavior and specify it in measurable term, second step is asses the behavior through a variety of strategies, third step is to teaching the way students were assessed and their need identified and fourth step of the model is to evaluate the effects of teaching on students’ learning through empirical means.         
Addressing the issues regarding testing and measurement, this model is considered effective where the teachers needs to assess first the students’ abilities, styles of learning and interest, then teacher needs to plan their teaching accordingly and at the end evaluate the way each child has been assessed and taught. Gardner introduced Multiple Intelligence leaving significant implications for teaching and learning in classroom. Teaching process in classroom needs to be molded such a way that all the intelligence could be addressed and the students learn according to their intelligence.
            This model requires teachers to assess first of all the students, find their qualities, styles of learning and differences among them. Then to teach addressing the needs of each and every student in classroom followed by the evaluation procedures on the basis the way teaching was done in classroom. These way students’ achievements will be truly fond which they acquired throughout the school year they have spent.

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

11:02:00 AM

Steps for intensification of learning process through effective use of media in classroom


The following steps can be taken to improve or intensify the learning process through electronic media in classroom;
1.      Teachers need to be well planned and well prepared for using electronic media in classroom to make the lesson effective.
2.      Students should be instructed first on how to use and get benefit in terms of learning in classroom before starting the lesson.
3.      Proper monitoring needs to be carried out during activities using electronic media and frequent feedback and guidance need to be provided.
4.      First motivate the students on using the particular type of electronic media as how effective use of electronic media benefits them so they will be mentally prepared for the importance of the electronic media to be used in classroom.
5.      The teacher him/herself needs to be very skillful and efficient in using the certain electronic media so as to intensify the learning process effectively.
6.       Purpose and objectives need to be cleared first specified by the teacher and shared with the students regarding the topic being taught and how the use of particular electronic media plays a significant role in that.
7.      Precautionary measures about use of electronic media and paying attention to the teacher needs to be made clear for the students in early stages of the lesson.

Sunday, June 9, 2019

9:17:00 AM

Unplanned Use of Electronic Media: Implications for teaching and learning


Introduction
With the rapid change in science and technology, the form of teaching and learning process in classroom has also been changed by using electronic media. Uses of multimedia, tablets, iPads, mobiles, video disc and so on are commonly used in classrooms in order to make teaching and learning effective (Catapano, n.d.). Positive use of electronic media can be ensured through proper planning. However, unplanned use of electronic media in classrooms leaves significant implications for teaching and learning as discussed below.
Unplanned use of electronic media can be distracting 
As well as there are advantages of electronic media in classroom teaching and learning, there are negative impacts if used in unplanned manner which leads towards distraction from the smooth teaching and learning process. The students are more motivated to use electronic media that paying attention to the teacher’s lesson. Therefore, well planned use of electronic media can leave positive impacts which need to be encouraged. Unplanned use of electronic media causing distractions leads towards low performance academically. It leaves an important implication for teachers that if they want to use electronic media, they should plan to use first and then bring them to classroom otherwise, that will be cause of disturbing rather support in learning (Raut & Patil, 2016).
Low level of interaction in classroom
 According to Bain (2015), it is the interactions in classroom between teacher-student and student-student interactions that play a significant role in learning in classroom. These interactions may be ensured in the form of students’ group discussions, presentations, pair work and such other techniques. For these strategies planned use of technology supports them to be carried out. However, if electronic media is brought into classroom without any proper planning, then it can cause the disconnection of the interactions among the learners. Electronic media if not planned then it reduces the verbal communication so to keep low level of interaction leaving no space for learning through interactions. 
Electronic media fosters cheating in academic tasks
It is common observation of the educators that students are found tending towards finding short cuts in completing their academic tasks such as homework, assignments and class work. Use of electronic media in classroom fosters in cheating academic tasks. It is easy way to complete class tasks through copy and paste in the given time without any rigorous exercise on the assigned task. In order to discourage or control over this negative practice, teachers need to be equipped with well prepared lessons if they want to use electronic media in classrooms (Bain, 2015).
All the students do not equally benefit from the electronic media
Unplanned use of electronic media in classroom teaching does not guarantee the equal benefits for all the students. All the students do not equally concentrate on teaching through electronic media in classroom until and unless the teaching is properly and adequately planned where all students are attempted to engage in teaching and learning activities. Therefore, teachers need not to use electronic media in their classroom teaching without planning (Catapano, n.d.).
Electronic media creates confusions among the students
            Electronic media to be used in classroom needs proper and continuous guidance from the teacher. If it is used in classroom teaching without planning, then it may lead students gathering unauthentic and irrelevant information. Therefore, the teachers need to plan their lessons such a way that each and every student could get teacher’s attention and guidance while benefiting from the electronic media used in classroom (Raut & Patil, 2016).
Use of electronic media becomes overwhelming if not planned
            Use of technology needs much more preparation on part of the teacher to make it purposeful and meaningful. Unplanned use of technology becomes overwhelming that what and how needs to be achieved through technology in classroom is not clear. It means that if mono tone activities are carried out throughout the lesson for forty to forty five minutes, it can cause overwhelmed or laborious feeling among the students (Bain, 2015).

References 
Bain, L. Z. (2015). How students use technology to cheat and what faculty can do about it. 

Information Systems Education Journal, 13(5), 92-99. Retrieved September 26, 2018, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1137336.pdf
Catapano, J. (n.d.). The Implications of New Technology in the Classroom. Retrieved
September 27, 2018, from
Raut, V., & Patil, P. (2016). Use of Social Media in Education: Positive and Negative impact
on the students. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, 4(1), 281-285. Retrieved September 28, 2018, from http://www.ijritcc.org


Thursday, June 6, 2019

10:59:00 AM

Issues Related to the Process of Curriculum Development in Pakistan


            The following are the major issues related to the process of curriculum development in Pakistan. Due to these issues, the curriculum developers do not succeed to develop a curriculum which is easily implanted and its positive effects could benefit the society as a whole.
Out dated curriculum and lack of sequence
            There is a lack of sequence among the concepts over the levels in the existing curriculum and it is also out dated on which the curriculum developers are supposed to construct the newly developed curriculum. Regarding content, there is the repetition of concepts from a long period of time. There is a negligible coordination found among the various agencies and committees which are responsible at various stages of curriculum development. There is a mismatch between the objectives, content, method and evaluation procedures. 
Lack of available funds
            Due to a lack of financial resources, the process of curriculum development is affected to a large extent. New teaching materials need to be suggested to utilize in educational institution in order to achieve the designed aims, goals and objectives. Content materials need to be replaced with updated and new knowledge and skills. Investment on education is already at a meager level which is invested in other areas of education process. Thus, there are little amount of the available funds expended on the process of curriculum development after some long period of time.
Political interference
            It has always been the practice that in the process of curriculum development political pressures have influenced in order to achieve their political agenda. The nomination of the personnel for curriculum development is on political basis due to which the process is affected in terms representation of relevant individuals. Political will makes a difference in the process of curriculum development if it is positively taken. However, in Pakistan the political will to improve curriculum revolves around the irrational and personal agenda of the political systems.
Lack of research in academics  
            In Pakistan, it has always been the problem that there are little amount of research work carried out regarding academics. The quality of the research work done is not up to the mark set by international standards. Therefore, in the process of curriculum development, research based work contributes to a great extent in setting objectives, selection of content, methods and evaluation procedures. Indigenous research work is important for developing the curriculum for a society which is lacking in Pakistan.
Less involvement of the teachers in curriculum development
            It is the common practice that in developing curriculum for primary or secondary grades, the opportunities for the teachers teaching in primary or secondary school teachers are not provided to participate in the curriculum development process. The teachers in schools are the actual players who implement the planned curriculum but they are given less chances to share their experiences in developing new curriculum.
Conclusion
            Curriculum in order to develop according to the needs and desires of the society, the issues related to it need to be addressed. Sincere efforts and professional commitment of the curriculum developers may develop such a curriculum which will be the true document of the hopes of the society. A flawless and relevant curriculum guarantees the achievement of intended goals of the society by producing the required educated individuals who will play their due role in developing the country.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

8:35:00 AM

Curriculum Development

Curriculum is the all learning activities carried out by learners and provided by the school personnel to let the learners acquire experiences those learning opportunities. These activities are devised by the educators for learners in such a way teachers easily implement in their own context (Print, 1993).
According to Parkay, Anctil and Hass (2006) curriculum is all the learning experiences that learners are gone through during an educational program. The purpose of these experiences is to achieve long term and short term objectives within a frame work of theory and practice related to professional practices and needs of the society.
According to Print (1993), there are three phases of curriculum development namely organisation, development and application. The organisation phase is about presage stage where people from different fields of life are gathered and share their backgrounds, conceptions of curriculum and the forces that shaped their thinking which will be reflected in curriculum development. The second phase is about development which is actually the steps of curriculum development process. Third phase is application of the developed curriculum which is also interlinked with the development as it provides feedback to improve the process of curriculum development. There are five steps involved in the process of curriculum development discussed in detail below.
Situational analysis
            The very initial step of curriculum development process is situational analysis during which the needs of students, environmental factors affecting curriculum, demands of the society, strengths and weaknesses of existing curriculum and opportunities and challenges are found through interviews, questionnaires, observation, document analysis and other types of inquiry. In this step which is also a stage of fact finding, gaps are attempted to be found which will be tried to fill in the curriculum being developed (Marsh, 1997).
Setting aims, goals and objectives
            The second step of curriculum development process is setting aims, goals and objectives which will be achieved through implementation of the newly developed curriculum. Aims are much broader statements achieved which need many years to be achieved. Goals are narrower statements than aims and broader than objectives. Goals are statements set to be achieved within one to ten years of period. While, objectives are set are two types such as general objectives and specific objectives.  Bloom’s taxonomy is consulted while setting objectives (Print, 1993).
Selection and organisation of content
The third step of the process of curriculum development is selection and organisation of content that is accurate and significant. Content is a set of facts, principles, concepts, skills, values, attitudes, processes and generalizations in form of printed materials, physical model and audio visual items which assist learners in accumulation of wisdom of that particular discipline. There are some certain principles for selection and organisation of content namely significance, validity, social relevance, utility, interest and learnablity which are followed during the selection of content in curriculum development process (Parkay, Anctill & Hass, 2006).
Selection and organisation of learning activities
            After selection and organisation of content, the next step is to select and organise learning activities or methods through which the selected content will be delivered. Methodology is defined as the combination of teacher behaviours in form of learning techniques used in educational process intending learners to acquire desired knowledge, skills, processes, traits and values to achieve educational goals. There are different methods of teaching which are suggested while developing curriculum such as lecture, demonstration, inquiry, project, laboratory, inductive and deductive methods (Marsh, 1997).
Evaluation
The last step in the process of curriculum development is determining evaluation and assessment procedures in order to find out the suitability and effectiveness of the curriculum developed. Evaluation procedures are suggested to employ to find out whether the set objective are to what extent achieved. This also shows that the objectives were appropriately set, the content selection was relevant and methods suggested are appropriate for the content to be delivered (Parkay, Anctill & Hass, 2006). 

References

Marsh, C. J. (1997). Planning, management and ideology: key concepts for understanding 
curriculum 2. London: Routledge falmer. 

Parkay, W., Anctil, J. E., & Hass, G. (2006). Curriculum planning a contemporary approach
           Boston: Pearson

Print, M. (1993). Curriculum development and design (2nd ed.). New South Wales.  Allen
          and Unwin.