Educational Stuff

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Friday, April 16, 2021

10:28:00 PM

Broad field curriculum


           Broad field curriculum has been developed under the critique on subject centered curriculum which combines together the related subject matter in across or disciplines into one broad field of study. The rational of broad field curriculum is to draw attention towards the relationships and integration of the content areas and experiences. Broad field design of curriculum is used to strengthen the interdisciplinary integration for learning. It enables students make linkages between the concepts across different disciplines. Acquisition of knowledge and coverage of content is the emphasis by combining the concepts in different disciplinary areas. Example of broad field design may be of social studies integrating all subjects of history, geography, economics, civics and sociology.

Apart from its advantage, broad field curriculum may not easy to implement as it demands the teachers who are trained and having knowledge of content in different subject areas. It is only appropriate at middle and secondary level schools and classes because at higher levels it may be applicable because of the specialized nature of the courses. In broad field curriculum, students are tending to obtain knowledge at surface level because of not having an in-depth understanding into a particular subject.

Monday, October 12, 2020

9:41:00 PM

Experimental research: Pretest-Posttest design

Experimental research design is a type of quantitative research studies which tests hypotheses to establish cause and effect relationship. In experimental research design, the researcher manipulates and controls the variables. Manipulated variable is called treatment or causal or experimental variable and while conducting research, the effects of treatment or experimental variable on the dependent variable are studied controlling the other extraneous variables. There are different types of experimental research designs such as true experimental designs, group designs and quasi-experimental designs. These designs have many sub-designs for conducting research studies which are applied while conducting research studies looking at the nature of the research problems (Gay & Airasian, 2003). For example, for the topic; "Effect of reading exercises on creative writing skills of secondary school students" the pretest-posttest control group design is appropriate design where reading exercises can be taken as independent variable or treatment while creative writing skills can be dependent variable. The pretest-posttest control group design requires two groups such as control group and experimental group formed through random assignments (Gay & Airasian, 2003). The following steps can be followed in pretest-posttest control group design.

Step 1: First of all, two groups of secondary school students may be formed through random assignment and they can be named as control and experimental group.

Step 2:  Both the experimental and control groups may be administered pretest.

Step 3: Experimental group will receives the treatment as reading exercises given in the research problem. However, control group will be addressed as routine work that may be different from the reading exercises.

Step 4: Both the experimental and control groups will be administered posttest at the end of the study. Posttest scores will be compared to find out the effectiveness of the treatment.

 In pretest-posttest control group design, random assignment, pretest and control group are meant to control the sources of internal validity. Random assignment controls here regression and selection factors, pretest controls mortality, randomization and control group will control maturation while control group controls the effects of history, testing and instrumentation. Here testing on reading exercises and their effects on creative writing skills is controlled because if pretesting leads to high scores in posttest than both treatment and control groups should benefit from pretesting. One weakness in this design is the interaction between the pre test and the treatment. Which means the results will be generalized to only pretested groups. How much this weakness make a difference depends upon the nature of pre test, treatment and the time period during which treatment is given.

There are a variety of ways in this design that collected data is analyzed to test the hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of the reading exercises. The purpose of administering pretest at the start of the study is to see the essential same level regarding the creative writing skills. If the level on creative writing skills during pretest is same then the scores of posttest are directly compared using t test. If the both the groups are not on the same level of scores in pretest, then the post test scores can be analyzed using the analysis of covariance which adjusts the posttest scores for initial differences on any variable including pretest scores. This is the effective technique to find out the effects of reading exercises.

The variation of pre test-post test control group design involves random assignment of the same level of subjects in the treatment group for the purpose of more closely controlling one or more extraneous variables. However, any variable that can be control through matching can be effectively controlled through other techniques such as analysis of covariance. Another variation in pre test-post test control group design is to administer more than one post test. It will provide the effects of the reading exercises on students’ creative writing skills immediately after the treatment and its effects on dependent variable at a later stage. It needs to keep in mind that the interaction between time of measurement and treatment may be a threat to external validity because there will be differences between the scores of both posttests. That means the effects of reading exercise on creative writing skills will be observed differently soon after the treatment and after a break of the treatment. It may not completely solve the problem but will minimize through providing information the effects of treatment on the dependent variable in a subsequent test after posttest. Pretest-posttest control group design is flexible to have extra control groups, which minimizes the influence of extraneous variables and the researcher can test whether the pretest itself has an effect on the subjects or treatment has affected the dependent variable. This design addresses many of the internal validity issues that can affect the generalizations of research findings. This design is supportive to the researcher to exert complete control over the variables and allows the researcher to check that the pretest did not influence the results. 

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

4:05:00 PM

Educational Research: A brief on studying world phenomena

A paradigm is defined as the framework based on the beliefs to view world phenomena leading towards conducting a research study on a certain problem in order to find its alternative solutions. Thus, a paradigm of research is a thought emerged from the beliefs and assumptions of a researcher which leads to carry on with a research study. 

Research is studying a phenomena from different perspectives

Educational research is systematic inquiry of any phenomenon in order to solve a problem related to teaching and learning. Epistemologically, the knowledge is true when it is explored through a planned inquiry of any educational phenomenon which could be utilized in real life problems. The knowledge which is persisting in phenomena occurred on daily basis and we came to know that knowledge through our planned inquiry. Our way of looking at things will influence the way we search for exploring that knowledge. Justification for we know what we know and how we know leads to find the true knowledge hidden in daily life phenomena. Reality refers to the hidden messages in phenomena that can be useful for human life which needs to be found through in-depth inquiry using relevant tools. People define reality in different ways according to their beliefs in real objects and worldly phenomena. However, reality concerns with the purpose for which that particular object or phenomena has been created naturally. Research should strive to explore that ultimate reality hidden in those objects and phenomena. Methodology while conducting research should be mixed method with a design of cause and effect relationship. Assumption may be held that clear and transparent procedures and steps without influenced by other factors will explore real cause and effect relationship within the daily life phenomena. Systematic random sampling technique to select research participants is helpful for generalizations and replication so that the actual findings could be obtained. Inductive approach while conducting research would be supportive to make generalizations. Data collection techniques such as observation, semi-structured interviews and group discussion may prove to be the relevant tools for carrying out research studies. Internal and external validity, reliability of the tools will ensure that the findings and results are real and on factual basis. Critical review and feedback from an experienced professional during the process of research will serve as quality criteria.

Sunday, June 14, 2020

12:00:00 AM

Administrative Problems in Public Sector Secondary Schools in Pakistan

According to the constitution of Pakistan, the state is responsible to provide free and compulsory education to the children of five to sixteen years age (Hussain, 2015). After 18th amendment the responsibility rests on provincial governments except three areas where the federal government is supposed to work on namely curriculum planning and development, policy making and collaborating with other national and international funding agencies to arrange for funds. Ashfaq, Dahar and Malik (2018) define the term administration as a tool to carry out managerial functions of an organization.  It is a way to operate the system in an organization smoothly and efficiently. The functions of educational administration are to plan, direct, control and coordinate within the educational setting in school or district to ensure the activities are smoothly conducted. However, in Pakistan it has been observed that administrative problems persist in public sectors schools. An analysis of the local research studies conducted in Pakistan about the administrative problems of public sector secondary schools of Pakistan revealed that political interference, lack of infrastructure, recruitment processes, lack of coordination among the administrative structural bodies, pressure groups and so on are some of the issues heighted.

Ashfaq, Dahar and Malik (2018) conducted a descriptive survey study regarding the administrative problems and found that the teachers’ transfers are done untimely and frequently without any solid justification. Some political groups interfere in teacher transfer/postings due to which schools suffer from administrative problems. Similarly, Ahmed et al (2013) revealed in their study that teacher are transferred on nepotism and favoritism. Such type of untimely and unnecessary transfers creates problems for smooth conduction of school activities. However, Iqbal (2012) conducted a study comparing private and public sector schools where many other issues were explored but teachers’ transfers was not a highlighted problem.

Recruitments in public sector secondary schools are on political basis due to which the quality in education cannot be ensured because of the incompetent teachers being appointed (Hussain, 2015). Likewise Ahmed et al (2013) found the same problem of recruitment of the teachers through political pressures which creates problems for administration to run the school effectively.

Regarding the infrastructure, Iqbal (2012) found that due of lack of funds for providing sufficient space for a huge number of students is challenging. The existing infrastructure is not sufficient as the laboratories for separate science subjects are not available. In contrary to it, Hussain (2015) found that in schools the existing physical facilities like building is not efficiently utilized. Lack of competency of administrative staff is a problem to effectively manage to utilize the space available in public sector schools in some parts of the country. On the other, Ashfaq, Dahar and Malik (2018) showed no findings in this regard. Ahmed et al (2013) indicated the lack of physical facilities such as availability of well equipped libraries, insufficient classrooms for a large number of students, lack of sports facilities and so on are missing from various public sector secondary schools.

The parental pressure regarding promotion of students has been indicated by the Ashfaq, Dahar and Malik (2018) in their findings. They reported that behaviour of the parents in this regard is harsh and they unnecessarily criticize teachers while showing lack of trust on teachers during examination and compiling results. Unlikely, other studies did not indicate such type of issue in their studies. However, Ahmed et al (2013) reported the there are lack of professional development opportunities for teachers due to which problems are observed in carrying out professional activities among the teachers. This may be linked with the assessment procedures which are not aligned with the needs of the students and demands of the society. It can be inferred that only traditional ways of evaluating students’ performance may arise questions among the parents.

Ahmed et al (2013) found that there is a lack of coordination and supervisory services buy the structural administrative bodies. They shared that the bureaucratic approach of high and middle level positions holding officers of administrative structure seemed to be invisible in visiting schools so that they could carry out coordinating and supervisory roles effectively. Resultantly, administrative problem such as missing facilities could be brought into their notice so that the problem could have been possible to address. There are no mechanism of check and balance systems in schools.  Hussain (2015) found a different picture of coordination within the schools as he reported that there is shortage of teachers, teacher absenteeism is common practice and there is a lack of friendly environment among the teaching and non teaching staff members in schools.

Administrative services in schools play an important role in school improvement. In case of public sector secondary schools some highlighted problems such as lack of coordination between supervisory staff and teaching staff, missing physical facilities, lack of funds, traditional practices of evaluation procedures are the hindrances in improving public sector schools. The public sector secondary schools can be improved while putting efforts and energies through ensuring proper utilization of allocated funds, teachers professional development opportunities, improved coordination and supervisory services, developing parental trust on teachers and schools. In short, all the stakeholders need to play their due role in addressing the administrative problem in public secondary schools in Pakistan.


Ahmed, et al (2013). Problems of Government Secondary School System in Pakistan: Critical

Analysis of Literature and Finding a Way Forward. International journal of academic research in business and social sciences, 3(2), 85-96. Retrieved August 23, 2018 from

Ashfaq, M. S., Dahar, M. A., & Malik, A. M. (2018). Administrative problems of head teachers

at secondary schools level in Pakistan. International journal of advanced research, 6(5), 1155-1168. Retrieved August 24, 2018 from 

Hussain, H. (2015). Education system of Pakistan: Issues, problems and solutions. Retrieved

August 22, 2018, from

Iqbal, M. (2012). Public versus private secondary schools: a qualitative comparison. Journal of

research and reflections in education, 6(1), 40 -49. Retrieved August 21, 2018 from


Tuesday, June 2, 2020

10:34:00 PM

Special Education and Competencies of Teachers

Special Education

            The type of education designed to provide learning opportunities to the students with special needs such mental, physical, emotional and social needs in order to help them acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes is called special education.

Competencies of special education teachers

Competencies are derived from five common approaches namely sensory-motor, vocational-social, remedial, normalization and therapeutic approaches to education children with special needs. On the basis of these approaches, going through the training programs, special education teachers develop the competencies as discussed in the following paragraph.

The special education teachers possess the knowledge of the common characters of students with special educational needs. The teachers have the knowledge of the methods and techniques of modifying the behaviors of the differently able students. They demonstrate a command over designing, implementing and evaluating the practices to modify the behaviors of students. They show the ability to design individualized programs for the students with different disabilities in a variety of educational settings. Special education teachers implement various assessment techniques to find out the information through the variety of sources about the achievements of special children and plan required instructional strategies to facilitate students with diverse needs. The special education teachers have the ability to conduct relevant assessment of students’ behavior through standardized and non-standardized means of data collection tools and analyse to improve the instruction further. They have the understanding of identifying the criteria for students with disabilities. The teachers facilitate and provide opportunities that promote choice and self-direction among the children with special needs. They also encourage and support the parents of the special children to play their active role in educating the students with different needs.

Significance of competencies of special education teachers in Pakistan

In Pakistan as other developing countries, the efforts to cater to the needs of children with special needs regarding education services have not been so encouraging. From the inception of Pakistan, meager efforts have been made to provide education to the children with special needs. However, non-government organisations extended their share to provide education to students with disabilities in cities. Through different education policies, special education was provided to some extent but those efforts could not meet the needs of the special children according to the population. In various national education plans education service for special children was reflected but not implemented wholeheartedly. The reasons behind reluctance in implementation of those plans included lack of funds, trained teachers and other facilities related to the requirements of the students with special needs. After 1980s government focused the special education on the basis of international events such as international year of the child, international year of persons with disabilities and decade of disabled. Special education centers were established and separate education policies were designed. However, efforts need to be triggered to provide education to the students with special needs to a large population of such students. For this purpose, training programs for special education teachers are significant where the teachers could be equipped with competencies to address the needs of special students in classrooms. In order to contribute in supporting the governments to play their role in addressing the needs of students with disabilities, teacher education programs for special teacher education teachers bears a high level significance. Developed competencies among the teachers of special education are of great importance to provide maximum efforts for education services and rehabilitation of the students with special needs. Education providing agencies at district level needs to provide facilities to benefit students with disabilities and one of the major facilities is the trained and competent teachers. Thus, the teachers having competencies to educate students with disabilities may play their critical role in Pakistani context. Non-governmental organisations (NGO) also play their role in addressing the needs of the students with special needs through teacher training and other facilities. In order to capitalize the efforts of governments and NGOs in providing education services to special children, teachers with competencies may prove to be effective ingredient to achieve the desired objectives. Ensuring the effectiveness and rehabilitation need the role of a variety of professionals, educations agencies and parental involvement at a greater extent. For this purpose, the teachers having required competencies play a significant role ensuring involvement of different groups providing special education.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

12:03:00 AM

Teacher Refresher Courses

What are teacher refresher courses ? 

            The term refresher is a concept of in-service teacher training in educational process. It is defined as a training which is designed to transform teachers’ obsolete knowledge and skills preparing them to be well-suited in an environment of new and updated knowledge, skills and techniques of teaching and learning process. In many countries, teacher training are not based on research findings. Therefore, teachers do not benefit from the research studies in the field. Looking at the situation of a gap between the teacher training and research findings, refreshers can be used to fill this gap addressing the need to benefit the teachers from research studies. In educational settings, evaluation procedures are based on traditional approaches rather than empirical research studies. in result, teachers are unaware of the relevant strategies of evaluation and they are unable to solve the problems related to their subject areas of teaching. Lack of application of research based solutions to problems in education leads towards creating a significant difference between the teachers’ practices and the practices of other professions where research based knowledge is applied. This difference makes educational research and development as a complex process towards contributing in solving educational problems. Thus, the gap between theory and practice widens. The solution to fill this wider gap between theory and practice is teacher refresher courses by changing teachers’ existing beliefs, attitudes and practice regarding teaching and learning.

Teacher refresher strategies

Refresher courses are carried out using three types of common strategies such as dissemination of information, sensitization and cooperative research studies. Dissemination of information is made through various means such as expository speeches, print media and electronic media which are commonly used by all the teachers. In order to benefit at maximum level, the audience who receive the information are trained enough to absorb the information and have a sufficient level to understand the meaning of the information. In sensitization the teachers are provided with the information and opportunities to discuss the information in the form of seminars. In this strategy of refresher, group discussion involving participants supervised by the trainer is thought to be effective. Teachers avail an opportunity to discover new facts, ideas, models, methods and techniques which contribute in their changing professional practices. The third strategy is cooperative research work which is important and effective to transform teachers by changing their behavior. 

Participants are engaged in a refresher course

Teachers are provided with the opportunities to solve their classroom problems using the findings of research studies. Cooperative research works include empirical research and action research which impact long lasting practices to be applied in teaching and learning. 

Suggested measures to make teacher refreshers more effective 

            In order to make the teacher refresher course more effective, the following measures are suggested for desired results of an in-service training.

i.                    The programmes related teacher refresher courses need to be planned on need based after carrying out needs analysis of the educational setting. On the basis of needs assessment, clear and explicit

objectives need to be set to achieve by the end of the programme.

ii.                  The teacher refresher should be tailored in such a way that the need of the school as well as the students could be met. The trainers need to be well qualified and experienced to create a learning environment in schools.

iii.                The content needs to be more practical and relevant for transforming teachers in the true sense so that the students could be benefited. Student-centered teaching methodologies, a variety of resources should be used.

iv.                The groups of participants should be selected such a way they have same subject areas to teach in classroom.

v.                  For better impact, regular and frequent teacher refresher courses should be arranged.

vi.             It needs to be attempted to address the needs of different prior levels of trainees in terms of competence, proficiency and skills.

vii.              Participatory action research should be introduced, given importance on it and emphasis needs to be put to conduct in real classroom situation.

viii.            A mechanism to follow up needs to be designed and strictly applied to find the impact of refresher courses. 

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

12:53:00 AM

Mentoring novice teachers and mentor training


The term mentoring is defined as a process where an experience person guides, supports and develops a beginner. Throughout the history of professional development programs in education, mentoring has played a key role in developing the beginners and enhanced their skills to be applied in workplace. In the context of teaching and learning, mentoring is a relationship between experienced educators and novice teachers, in which the educators as mentor guide, coach, plan, observe, provide feedback and reflect on their own and novice teachers' learning.

Importance of mentor training
Mentor Training
Mentor Training

The mentor training plays an important role in mentoring novice teachers. Training impacts the mentors on two broad themes such as understanding the role of mentor and changing mentoring practices. Regarding the understanding of mentor’s role, through the training, mentors equip themselves with the skills of providing feedback, creating opportunities for learning and role modelling. After gone through the training, mentors realize that their role is of a complex nature of developing knowledge and skills of novice teachers rather a mere supportive role. This realization leads mentors towards reflection on the impact of mentoring on novice teachers’ performance. Along with understanding the role of mentor, the impact of training on mentors is the changed practices of mentoring such as creating an enabling environment for learning, developing expectations, exchanging feedback, encouraging and directing towards professional development. Mentor training assists them to provide a conscious support to the novice teachers. Through the training, the mentors became mindful of the link between support and relationship with the novice teachers developing a shared understanding towards achieving desired outcomes. A collaborative attitude emerges from the mentor training where the mentors attempt to plan together and work together with the novice teachers leading to a shared professional journey. The more changed practices in result of mentor training include practical aspects such as being aware of how and what should be served to novice teachers so that they will have a rich experience from the mentoring program.  In short, the mentor training benefits making them aware of relational, developmental and contextual elements of the role of mentor. 

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

11:24:00 PM

Main elements of teacher education programme

The teachers in classroom have five elements on which they work for addressing the needs of all students explained in detail in the following sections. The main elements that make up the curriculum of teacher education include a learning environment, academic content, pedagogy, assessment and classroom management.
Learning Environment
The first element teacher education is classroom environment on which the teacher will be developed to teach in a way that every student is able to learn. Environment where the students feel safe, included and engaged.  First the student will think of survival, then look for social interaction and finally he/she will go for learning. The teacher in teacher education is equipped with the techniques to be applied in classroom so that the students could be provided opportunities to avoid fear, isolated which capture the brain’s attention. The way a teacher creates an environment in a classroom that opportunities for students to have a sense of belonging and safety is concerned with the teacher’s attitude. If  a teacher is willing to work hard, resultantly, the kid is willing to work hard as well to create things which are supportive and those things change the mindset of the teacher to teacher-student interactions to a sense of community then there will be a place enabling learning.
In terms of the national professional standards of teachers, one of the standards is about understanding of the learning environment which means the teachers need to analyze the situation in the schools and classroom. The available resources and needs of the society play an important role in teaching and learning. The teachers need to be aware with the contextual realities to ensure addressing the needs of safety and belongingness in classrooms. 
The curriculum is considered balanced which is viewed and planned holistically and not in a wish list fashion. The subject matter of teacher education curriculum is concerned with proficiency in the teaching a certain subject area. Regarding the content, it is described as the technical knowledge that one have of subject and insights into the possibilities and limitations of scientific knowledge and ability to assess the relevance of scientific discipline. This element is aligned with the first and foremost national professional standard of teachers which is having a command over on content knowledge in the subject area where the teachers need to have an in-depth knowledge  and understanding of subject matter in the subject areas which the teacher teach. It is important for the teachers to facilitate students in classrooms so that the students will get benefits from the strong content of the subject area that the teachers have. For that purpose the teachers need to have updated knowledge and understanding though reading articles, reference books, research journals, encyclopedia and so on.
The next element of teacher education programme is pedagogy which refers to the professional abilities such as the ability to engage students in the teaching and learning process.  It is about the relationship between teaching and learning and how together they lead to growth in knowledge and understanding through practice. It is concerned with the practical experience often called practicum, where the teachers go through the participation in the fieldwork. This is an opportunity for teachers to bring all other components together and practice the role of a teacher. The teachers need a body of knowledge about educational theory or pedagogy. Teacher education has to put emphasis on educational studies such as pedagogical theories, research methods and educational psychology. The intention is to enable the teachers to acquire an extensive understanding of children’s needs. The curriculum needs to involve basic knowledge of the school subjects including subject-specific methodology. This element of teacher education programme is reflected in national professional standards for teachers which discusses that the teacher needs to have a strong the knowledge about the teaching methods and strategies. Teachers need to be professionally developed by having the knowledge of designing learning activities for students.
The next element in teacher education is assessment which concerns what and how well the students learnt, understood and are able to do as a result of that learning. If the teachers understand what students should be able to know, understand, and do at any given point in an instructional unit, then they are ready for pre-assessment as well as formative assessments. Because the teachers lack clarity about the end goal, the formative assessments and the pre-assessments are sometimes loosely linked. Teachers through teacher education need to be encouraged to be rigorous in establishing clear goals for themselves and for their students. For this purpose they require their instructional planning to go beyond completing the course creating activities which motivate students to do well. This clear attention involves knowing exactly where the teacher wants the students to achieve by the end of the lesson. The assessment is really important is supporting the students understand how it works so that they can say that they achieved. This element is sort out in the national professional standards of teachers, the teachers need to be skillful in assessing students’ leaning. The tools and techniques for assessment in classrooms make a difference in teaching and learning. The teachers are expected to be able to collect, analyze and interpret the data regarding students’ academic achievements.
 Classroom management
Classroom Management is the fifth element of teacher education programme which is about the way teachers lead students and manage procedures and routines. In a classroom is considered as well managed if the teacher is very motivated, looks for the needs, gets the game plan, but at the same time he/she is afraid that if ever quit trying to give everybody the same stuff with the same sort of instructions that would all fall apart on him. A teacher cannot make a classroom workable for all the students unless the classroom is flexibly managed to address a variety of needs, to make room for every individual student. That is the essence of classroom management. One size fits all approach is the sign of a poorly managed classroom.  
Regarding classroom management, according to the national professional standards of teachers, the teachers in order to be able to address the needs of the every individual student in classrooms need to have an understanding of human growth and development. The study of educational psychology will equip the teachers with the ways how to effectively teach the students according to their age levels applying the procedures and routines of the classroom teaching and learning. According to the educational psychology, neat and clean, well organized classroom, appropriately sequenced learning activities maximize academic learning time.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

10:03:00 PM

Competency based model of teacher education

Competency based model of teacher education is considered as an initiative in teacher education which is widely discussed. After 70s this model became highly influential in teacher education as departments and training institutions transformed their teacher education programmes into competency based teacher education. At present, money and resources are invested in this model of teacher education and teachers are trained in this manner. Although, decades have gone practicing the competency based teacher education but it has made a little space in British teacher education programme. However, in America, the demand for public accountability due to the economic problems in the near past opened the doors to justify public expenditure on teacher education in order to demonstrate competencies of trainee teachers.
Competency based model of teacher education emphasizes performance publicly against a shared set criteria. Behavioral philosophies trigger competency based model of teacher education where a teacher’s role is visible revealing competencies under specific objectives. The trainee teachers are supposed to be accountable for showing observable performance objectives in an unspecified time period for acquisition. The flexibility in time span is provided through personalized teaching and learning on the basis of learning portfolios. Competencies are acquired through learning portfolios which include explicitly defined competencies and their rational, behavioral objectives, pre-tests of proficiency, concepts to develop understanding, questions to be answered, required learning activities, and explanations of the evaluation procedures. Defining teacher’s role in competency based model of teacher education is some sort of difficulty. Generally it is thought to contain three components namely knowledge, technique and style. Knowledge comprises subject matter and education theory, techniques implies mastery and application of teaching skills and style refers to attitudes and traits. A teacher is competent on demonstration of a combination of all the three components to produce meaningful results. The categories of competencies are organised as; cognitive involves knowledge, intellectual abilities and capacities to demonstrate, performance comprise strategies, technical and vocational skills to be applied, consequence involve performance of students taught by the trainee teachers, effective require attitudes and values to be demonstrated while exploratory  refers an experience or activity in which the trainee teacher is to participate.
Regarding the role, some related cluster of competencies are in combination to form a function and a set of functions getting combined form a role. Thus, in competency based model of teacher education, the role of the teacher includes the functions of planning, instructing and evaluating. Each function comprises a number of competencies. Competencies provide a base in different ways to design a programme and the selection procedures controls the form and content of the programme. One proposal presents four basic procedures; role analysis which refers to observing what teachers actually do.  Second procedure is named as theoretical model analysis which assumes certain teacher behaviors. The third procedure is needs assessment which considers what teachers ought to do to meet their students' needs and fourth procedure is termed as course translation which considers what teachers should do during the transition from traditional teacher training to competency based teacher education.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

8:02:00 PM

Measure to make assessment authentic

Authentic assessment strives to reveal what is actually learnt by the learners rather than what is obtained from the traditional type of assessment tools such as tests and quizzes. In order to make the assessment authentic, some of the important measures are suggested in to be implemented in

classrooms are as given below. visit for more about authentic assessment here
1.    Do it often: Making assessment authentic takes time to be planned and carried out. However, they are rewarding for both the learners and assessor. When the teachers first time start to carry out in a new classroom they will face challenges. Therefore, overcoming challenges and being successful in effective implementation of the authentic assessment, the teachers need to practice it again and again.

Break it down: In order to avoid overwhelming among the students assessment procedures need to break down in small steps. For small students timeline needs to be set while for elder students, schedules of the tasks should be determined by themselves to be self regulated learners.  
3.    Don’t dwell on rules: teaches need to keep in mind that while in designing learning tasks, there is no one best way. In the same way they should take authentic assessment as they expect the students in completing learning tasks. 
4.     Go backwards: while designing lessons teachers are expected to start with the assessment so that they will know what they are intending the students to demonstrate by the end of the lesson. Being aware they will design learning activities according to the set objectives. 
5.   Cater to students’ interests: It is important that teachers try to align the assessment with the interests of the students. Teachers should think about how students will be motivated to deeply engage in their work.
6.   Never underestimate the power of reflection: At last consider the students’ reflection on the tasks and assessment procedure when it gets completed. Doing this will reinforce them to further clarify and rectify misconceptions through synthesizing what the children have taken the assessment tasks.  Furthermore, student will develop their moral high knowing that the teachers care about opinions.