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Thursday, February 21, 2019

6:32:00 AM

Education and Economic Productivity

Education is one of the most significant aspects of social and economic development of a society. It is an end in itself not just a means to an end. Human capabilities are developed through education, thus it is a right of every human being. Many doors of better opportunities of access to income growth and employment are opened by education for the individuals. Education greatly improves particularly in females the ability to household to manage basic child care, taking care of diets and ensure effective diagnosis of diseases (Haq and Haq, 1998). 
Education develops an individual’s intellect, improves his/her quality of life and skills and efficiencies in producing useful things. At the same time education contributes to provide satisfactions to the educated themselves, their friends and their neighbors and in producing materials in large quantity and of better quality (Qureshi, 1991).
Education significantly improves methods of increasing products such as use of appropriate amount of fertilizers, seeds and machines and the selection of crops. The selection of appropriate amount of seeds and fertilizers for a certain space requires knowledge of computation, abilities to identify fine seeds and knowledge of how to use them (Tilak, 1994). For example in northern areas of Pakistan, agriculturists through non-governmental organisations provide seeds, small plants and germicides to the people who are concerned with agriculture. This increases their productions from crops and plants and prevents them from diseases. This way production in agriculture side has increased to a quite great extent. 
In short, education contributes to economic growth through improving knowledge and specific skills and developing general attitudes among the individuals for a variety of job opportunities. It contributes to economic growth of society by improving health, reducing birth rate and by political stability.
Employability is defined by International labour organization, given in Xhafferi and Iqbal (2008) as;
“The key outcome of education and training of high quality, encompassing the skills, knowledge and competencies that enhance a worker's ability to secure and retain a job, progress at work and cope with change, secure another job if she/he so wishes or has been laid off and enter more easily into the labour market at different periods of the life cycle” (P. 21).
Educated individuals become productive employees accepting the challenges of changing world. They enhance their chances of finding jobs on their own through education incorporated necessary knowledge and required skills (Xhafferi & Iqbal 2008).
Samman (2001) shares that educated person has got empowered to acquire more autonomy in decision making and greater control over the material resources particularly females. Parental demands are influenced by mother’s educational level. For example mostly families prefer son in their home during birth of the child. This preference is removed only after a relatively high level of education has been achieved.
Education makes the individuals useful citizens, self reliant and independent learners through providing opportunities to experience citizenship, self reliance and independence (Qureshi, 2005).
Different kinds of industries, jobs, occupations are developed in a community through education. The individual with their abilities and skills find jobs within the community.
References
Qureshi, M. (2005). Social aspects of Education. New Delhi: Anmole publications.
Haq, M., & Haq, K. (1998). Human Development in South Asia. Retrieved February 21, 2019
 Samman, M. L. (2001). Education, social change and development: education level effects on fertility and child health/mortality. In. D. B. Rao (Ed.), Education for 21st
century (pp. 81-84). New Delhi: discovery publishing house.
Tilak, J. B. G. (1994). Education for development in Asia. New Delhi: sage publications.
Xhaferri, R. & Iqbal, K. (2008, February 24). Tailor made education. Dawn. Retrieved January 09,                 from http://www.dawn.com/weekly/education/arch/arch_2009.htm


Monday, January 28, 2019

6:28:00 AM

Future trends and dimensions of population phenomenon in Pakistan and its relationship with socio-economic development


The population growth in Pakistan started from its inception with a decline in death rate for a longer period of time. After that expansion in population got accelerated with declining mortality rate in result of improvements in health and living standards of the people. Lower outbreaks of diseases and no famines were another factor in declining mortality rate. The population by 1950 was calculated as 38 millions in Pakistan. Today, the overall population has increased up to 200 millions. The growth in population is expected to be continued for forthcoming several decades. The projection in increasing population is expected to be observed in multiplier effect having tenfold up to 2100. This increased population will have clear implications for development in social and economic aspects. On the basis of projections made by Bongaarts, Sathar and Mahmood (2013) in light of the projections of United nations, National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS)  and Population Council of Pakistan, in the following sections of this piece of writing will discuss the future trends and dimensions of Population in Pakistan and its impacts on economic development.
From 1950 to 2010, the population increased five-fold reaching up to 174 million. By 2050, from the analysis of the projections of population by UN, NIPS and Population Council shows a projected population will be more than 300 million. The total fertility rate considered in above projection was 2 births per women in 2050. However, Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey in 2006-07 and NIPS in 2008 estimated total birth rate around 4 births per women.
Bongaarts, Sathar and Mahmood (2013) carried out their study and found that the population in 2050 will be reaching up to 395 million. Their analysis revealed that in future a relatively small variation in fertility trend will have a large impact on population trends. The levels and trends in the age composition have significant effects for socioeconomic development in the sectors of education, employment, poverty and health. It is reported that from 1950 to 2000 the Pakistani population was very young where about 60 percent of the population was below 25 and during the century the age structure was slightly changed. However, huge changes in age structure are expected to be persisted in the forthcoming decades because of the decline in fertility and younger generations will be smaller segment of population than older generations.
The population below age 15 is small in population size due to decline in fertility after 1990s. The size of population of age 65 and above is small but growing due to increased life expectancy. The population of age from 15 to 64 is large in number and growing with fast pace. In future, profound growth in projected working age population shows an opportunity as well as a challenge. If they are given opportunities to be employed then the economy of the country will be improved. Otherwise, if a large number of working people will be unemployed then severe negative social, economic and political repercussions will likely be experienced.
The anticipated population growth in future depends upon four demographic trends namely high fertility, declining morality, population momentum from young age structure and migration.
High Fertility
A high fertility is said to be persisted when it goes beyond the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman. The replacement is a significant factor in the trends of population because it equalizes fertility level that if it maintained for a longer period of time then it produces zero population growth. Positive deviation from the replacement leads towards population growth and negative deviation leads towards decline. At present in Pakistan, replacement exceeds up to 2.3. Throughout the history, positive deviation has been observed to be persisted. It has been observed that fertility has been approached up to 7 births per women in 60s. Current and projected levels are going beyond replacement. Thus, high fertility will be a contributing force in population growth till 2050.
Declining mortality
In past, one of the factors in increased population in Pakistan is speedy decline in mortality rate. In Pakistan, life expectancy has improved at an encouraging level from 41 to 65 in 50s. Advancement in medical and public health technology, improved standards of life and nutrition contributed in enhancing life expectancy. In the forthcoming decade, life expectancy is expected to be increasing up to 72 by the year 2050 resulting decline in mortality.
Population momentum from a young age structure
For a certain period of time in the countries where population is growing rapidly, the negative deviation from replacement level will not decline in population growth because of the young age structure due to high fertility and rapid population grown in the past years.  Thus, in Pakistan this situation of increasing population under 25 will persist. Large size of young aged people will result in relatively increased birth rate that will be higher than the death rate even if fertility is at replacement. Such type of future growth is called population momentum which can be controlled if the young people marry later and take time to their first birth. The trend gets change that young people in Pakistan will prefer smaller families than earlier generations, but that will not be uniformed. Comparatively high educated youngsters particularly women are likely to have lower fertility than earlier generations. However, uneducated individuals will not deviate much as compared to their parents.
Migration
Some tangible effects can be seen in some countries due to international migration. In case of Pakistan very slight out migration is estimated as 1 per thousand people. 
From the analysis of the four factors reveals that in Pakistan high fertility is dominating element in population growth. The standard projection goes up to 302 million in 2050 on the basis of 174 million in 2010. On the other hand, the replacement projection shows a population of just 264 million. This difference in projections is because of high fertility which was measured in absolute terms as terms as 38 million. Even if the replacement fertility is taken from the existing situation, still the population is expected to grow at 53 percent in the forthcoming four decades. The young age structure will effect population growth about more than half between now and 2050 where effects of mortality and migration will affect at a negligible percentage in comparison to young age structure. 
Afzal (2009) found that the population growth severely affects the economic development. For Pakistan, rapid population growth is a real and important problem because Pakistan has the highest total fertility in the Asian countries. Highly increased population has become an key factor to reach the overall development goals. It is highly desirable this uncontrolled population growth is monitored to release the pressure on the existing infrastructure the returns of economic development are consumed by high population growth. The situation of Pakistan is different from other developed countries because the population growth and economic development are divergent. Human resource cannot be exported to other countries as already a huge number of Pakistanis are working abroad. Because of high population growth, national saving rates is affected where resources for reproductive purposes are diverted to meet the needs of high population. Pakistan has very lowest saving rates in Asia.
Foreign investment and export promotion policies of Pakistan have been fairly successful due to which Pakistan needs foreign aid on concessional basis which is not available. That is why government in last decades offered varying incentive for foreign investment. Pakistan has the potential to cash human capital, advanced technology, technical skills, marketing expertise, employment generation and linkages with the other countries.
In Pakistan, the population under 15 has a large number which are dependent hindering economic growth and they must be supported financially to be active labour force. Saving rates are low which affect investment exercise. Living standards of the people falls due to severe effect on productive efficiency of the working force.
Pakistan encounters serious environmental problems. Highly increased population and impressive GDP puts pressure on natural resources while levels of pollution is increasing day by day. Fast pace of expanding industrial production and urbanization leads towards industrial waste, water pollution, solid waste and vehicle emissions that have resulted in serious health problems in many areas of the country. A close relationship between rapid population growth and poverty has been noted. With meager employment opportunities, relative and absolute poverty is persistent for a longer period of time. It is evident that poverty declined in 1970s and 1980s but increased after 1990s which badly affected poor families demand for education, health and housing needs. More recent evidence on the incidence of poverty indicates that poverty that declined in 1970s and 1980s increased in 1990s that have adversely affected the poor families demand for education and the health and housing conditions have also deteriorated. The issue of poverty in Pakistan has been always a challenge for sustainable development. Long lasting economic development is not possible without protecting the rights of the vulnerable groups and the participation of the entire population in the development process.  Since speedy economic growth and population growth are incompatible and thus, population growth must be reduced on war footing.

References
Bongaarts, J., Sathar, Z. A., & Royan, R. (2013). Capturing the demographic dividend in
Pakistan. Population council, Inc. retrieved August 15, 2018 from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/j.2326-4624.2013.tb00005.

Afzal, M. (2009). Population Growth and Economic Development in Pakistan. The Open
Demography Journal. 2009, 2, 1-7. Retrieved August 16, 2018 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d054/5becd3d0ba01601f21103cdf8556513b2a29.pdf


Sunday, January 20, 2019

10:21:00 PM

Scientific thinking and mechanization process for socio-cultural aspect of a society

A way of thinking about the subject areas, subject matter or problems related to everyday science through which the person attempts to improve his/her quality of thinking is called scientific thinking. The inbuilt structures thinking and inflicting intellectual standards upon them is the core of scientific thinking (Elder & Paul, 2012).
According to Olshin (n.d), People live in an era having traditional souls in modern world. In modern world society is applying scientific thinking which is indirectly breaking down the traditional cultural ideas. Proponents of the scientific thinking and mechanization processes, declared this phenomena as a warning to the traditional culture in a society. Shifting of the socio-cultural ideas on the basis of scientific thinking was referred as rationalization of people’s lives in modern society by Max Weber one century ago where people were suggested to live following the rules and guidelines set by some well known knowledgeable personalities. People according to the natural law of inertia, would resist accepting scientific thinking and mechanization process in the initial stages but very few will directly accept this change because they know this is a change in their socio-culture which will be benefiting them. According to the David Bohm as cited in Olshin (n.d), scientific thinking and mechanization does not only change ideas of the people but also their way of observation, feelings, institutions, tangible actions and relationships with each other  and with the society will also be influenced by scientific thinking among the people. The reason to the changes in every phase of people’s lives through scientific thinking and mechanization process is that people cannot step back to traditional notions.
Chetty (2012) is of the opinion that scientific thinking and mechanization changes the life styles of the people which include their connectivity, communication, transactions. Society needs to promote technological advancement while investing on education and skill development of the youth. Due to scientific advancement, economy, health services, educational systems and infrastructure are growing to be improved. In 21st century, because of scientific thinking and mechanization products are going to be transformed into business applications improving economy and resultantly, live of the people who have access to the influences of products based on science and technology. In developing countries, through the breakthroughs in health and education services due to science and technology, standard of lives of people are going to be improved. New and modern equipment have made the diagnosis and treatments easier which will be applied to cure the patients in early stages.
Because of access and applicability towards the advances of science and technology, economy improves and poverty is reduced particularly in developing countries. However, it depends on the ability to creatively grasp and apply insights from the fruits of scientific thinking and mechanization in order to overcome the issues of poverty and improve the quality of lives. Technology has no end as working as n engine for growth in productivity through providing opportunities for skilled labour to develop their capital.
Electronic devices such as computers and internet, mobiles, and the cloud have revolutionized the human experiences. People through access to the world of knowledge and markets have got empowerment which is changing the relationships between the citizens and authorities and with other communities across the globe.  Education has been spread whereby people increase their qualifications through getting high degrees from the institutions through virtual means of communications. 
Scientific thinking and mechanization grows awareness among the people who share the planet with other communities changing environment by the human activities. Science and technology has played the role of a tool to economic expansion and military power for wealthier countries. It has been possible to stop the indefinite consumption of natural resources among the regional and local environment. Hungary (1999) argues that science has made transition from an obsession with growth to achievement of a dynamically stable and sustainable ecological and economic system.  An alliance between modern technical science and the holistic wisdom from indigenous societies and philosophers from all cultures can be very important.
In the days coming ahead, the pace of change in natural and human conditions is expected to be accelerated. A huge responsibility rests on scientists to be involved with policy makers and the public is responsible to implement suggested solutions to the issues local and worldwide. The role of science in society and governance is going to be more important.

References
Olshin, B. (n.d). Scientific Thinking and Modernity Meet Traditional Culture. Retrived

Chetty, L. R. (2012). Role of science and technology in the developing world in the 21st
Century. Institute for Ethics and emerging technologies. Retrieved August 14, 2018 from https://ieet.org/index.php/IEET2/more/chetty20121003

Hungary, B. (1999). Role of science and technology in society and governance: towards a
           new contract between science and society. Science for twent- first century. Retrieved August              15, 2018 from http://www.unesco.org/science/wcs/meetings/eur_alberta_98_e.htm

Saturday, January 12, 2019

6:33:00 AM

Trends and Developments in Science and Technology


Science and technology has impacted society to a large extend. With the passage of time, new innovations are brought about by the researchers in science and technology. The multiplier effect is observed in society where one innovation opens the doors for many other innovations. Governments, private organisations and investors are rapidly investing on science and technological developments and which has shifted these trends and developments in science and technology towards economic development. Following are some of the major trends and developments in science and technology (Augustyn, 2017) followed by implications for education in future.
Robotics, AI, and Automation
One of the core trends in science and technology is robotics, artificial intelligence (AI), and automation which have been largely applied in economy including many market sectors such as agriculture, finance, customer support and logistics. Many countries use intelligent software to monitor frauds, deteriorating cases and so on within very short intervals of time. Currently, artificial intelligence is used to perform such tasks which have been previously declared as expert’ tasks. According to a study, a robot particularly introduced to diagnose and recommend treatment for cancer. After analysis of a huge number of written materials on cancer, the robot recommended the treatment which matched with the recommendations of almost 90 percent human oncologists make in their daily routine work. Robotics and artificial intelligence are deeply applied in defense sector as well. Adoption of robotics and artificial intelligence is growing by global markets for autonomous vehicles. Its economic impact has been predicted to be on top in the years and decades ahead. Its impacts on finance, health care and the services will likely to cross the level of growth.
Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies
Another core trend of science and technology is advanced materials and manufacturing technologies in which such techniques and strategies are applied which introduce innovations based on increased investments in various industries from automotive designs to medical equipment. Advanced materials in global market and advanced manufacturing methods are reaching more than trillions. 3D printing and quantum dots are applied in high fidelity video displays and other such tasks leading towards fast pace of growth as advances in manufacturing nano-materials. Regarding advanced materials there is a wider range of innovations starts from nano-materials, ceramics, materials which have capability of self-healing and such type of other capabilities. Graphene is a tiny material which has only two layers of carbon atoms is replacing silicon semiconductors which made it possible significantly smaller, faster electronic chips for computers and other electronic applications. Advancement and creativity is integrated in producing very small but significant materials from recycled waste materials. In China, replacing super capacitors, porous carbon material has been introduced by leaves and other biomass waste.
3D printing has been already come into practice in industries and it will be widely available at low cost which is distributed by small scale network of manufacturers. Research is being conducted on developing 4D printing which will be having additive manufacturing techniques to produce such materials which will change their shape in response to heat, light, force and other electromagnetic signals.

Food and Water Technology
Food and water are the emerging issues to be progressed rapidly throughout the world. Global warming and climatic changes have alarmed the importance of food and water. However, in many folds improvement in food and water security is observed to be occurred. Relevant actors in the field are busy in applying productive practices regarding agriculture.  Research based suggested strategies are employed by farmers. They rely on localized data and remote sensing images to apply the appropriate amount of water, fertilizers and pesticides to the newly grown crops. Visualize weather, field health and nitrogen data, customize planting schedules and connect wireless to the machinery related to sowing and harvesting in order to collect and analyse the relevant data are carried out by Climate Corporation’s tools. Genetic engineering is being capitalized in crops which can cope with the extreme weather conditions. Genetically diverse crops are preserved through cryogenic facilities which help farmers to grow food under different weather conditions.
In recent past, various technologies have been undergone for water security. Desalination plants have been using to provide water to the households. Water is produced at lower price and consumes less energy in reverse osmosis desalination plants. It is also attempted to recycle water from wastes into clean potable water. Vertical fog-harvesting mesh nets are used to collect clean water from atmosphere in the areas where the climate suites for that purpose.
Space Technology
After artificial satellite named sputnik sixty years back, now progress is made to utilize low cost commercial space flights, tininess, materials and space forward motion. Much of the progress in the past five years has come from the rapidly expanding commercial space industry. Investment made on space technology is growing spending on research and development in this regard. 
More exploratory is asteroid mining which is highly transformative and emerging technology. There are an estimated 15,000 near-Earth asteroids could feasibly be mined with current space technologies. There are significant technical barriers to make asteroid mining cost-effective. T is difficult to calculate the composition of asteroids using current ground and orbital sensors and rate of return from the retrieving minerals makes the investors reluctant. However, private investment in space technology is growing rapidly.
Synthetic Biology
Along with cutting and pasting genes through genetic engineering, synthetic biology is applying the principles of engineering to biotechnology using computer modelling and DNA synthesis. Falling costs and new gene editing tools like CRISPR are accelerating progress in the global market. Professionals are engaged in designing simple synthetic gene circuit to develop first fully synthetic genome in bacteria. Side by side of these efforts, focus is on learning how to rebuild entire genomes and scientists are trying to design artificial gene circuits that will perform new functions. Using standardized DNA parts, parallel to electronic components used to build integrated circuits. Researchers have created everything from undeveloped biological computers to bacteria that seek and destroy other microbes. These techniques are experimented with understood organisms like E. Coli and yeast and recently this process has been applied to mammalian cells and plants. It has also been performed that different damaged re-engineered organisms can be used to create multicellular environmental sensors and cell-free gene circuits.
Quantum Computing
Current age is of the quantum computing and communications as they have come out from the theory and landed on practice. Practical quantum computing is a breakthrough technology in information technology. Governments have been involved in investing on quantum computing and communications. Most probably quantum computers will go beyond the capabilities of classical computers. In a classical computer, a bit has a value of 0 or 1 and acts as an on/off switch but quantum computers may represent both 0 and 1 simultaneously, and the state of one quantum bit can depend on the state of another. Quantum bits are more sophisticated switches that can perform multiple calculations at once. Hence, quantum computers will be able to make rapid calculations on massive datasets and solve problems that today’s computers cannot.
Need for research and development has aroused among many agencies like governments, industries and investors in this potentially transformative field. Quantum computing can solve complex problems with a very high speed and accuracy in different fields of life. Exploration of new medicines and materials, optimization of global supply chains, making artificial intelligence more powerful, and improving financial and climate modelling are the potential areas to be worked on through quantum computing. It helps protect individuals and institutions from cybercrime.
Biomedical Science and Human Augmentation
There have been many innovations related to human health and performance. Artificial intelligence has supported health care analytics, is going to physicians powerful new tools for diagnosing diseases among patients. Through wearable and ambient sensors with mobile devices are giving patients and physicians monitoring mechanism health condition resultantly identification of treatments to diseases that can be given in time. Genetic science is growing to be a drive for the development of pharmaceuticals that deliver effects that are tailored to individual physiology, improving treatment outcomes while producing fewer side effects. Huam health span may extend by physical and cognitive augmentation technologies and help people to remain healthy well into their senior years. 
Regenerative medicine is another example of a rapidly emerging biomedical application during which genetic material from stem cells or engineered DNA or RNA is used to rebuild damaged tissues in the body. It acts as a branch of personalized medicine while leveraging deep understanding of the human genome, advanced modelling and analytics. Principles from bioengineering to produce preventive and corrective treatments that are particularly design to fit with an individual’s physiological posture.
Implications for education  
According to Kola (2013), the trends and developments in science and technology leave a strong impact on educational process. With developments, new techniques are required and such trends and developments bring about changes in goals by changing patterns of the society.  Libraries will be replaced with computer based libraries and teaching will be carried based on the computer assisted learning approaches. The access to handy and easily available information through internet will be practiced by the teachers and learners. Educational planners and policy makers develop such plans and policies which will suit the mode of transformation of education. The use of digit technology will facilitate both teacher and the taught as being the pace fast.  
The teachers will be required to teach in small groups rather than a large group because machines will assist teacher in sparing time for more activities. The teaching will require teachers to be more professional and specialized along with their strong content in subject areas as well as they need to be digitally literate. In the school setting more emphasis will be on structures, develop sense of belonging in small groups and it will offer a variety of specialized options for study.
The content to be imparted to students will require to be matched with the trends and development in science and technology. An updated and research based curriculum will need to be developed. New ideas in science and technology will be embedded in content which would need new and relevant methods of teaching. With the developments in society by science and technology, assessment system will also be shifted to computers. Changes in educational content may be expected also as a result of social changes arising mainly from the use of new technologies. The teaching of science will be substantially affected by the renewed interest in field studies in the biological sciences, by the concern for science and technology. Flexibility and adaptability in later life will be particularly valuable characteristics because employment patterns can be expected to change as a result of technological innovation.
With the trends and development in science and technology, aims and objectives will be changed by predicting about the future trends and demands. The demand of such professions will be increased which would be thought suitable for economic development as well as social development. Professions which require technical skills would be desirable by the society. Engineering, biological sciences, agriculture, mathematics would be preferred subject areas in which the parents would desire for their children.
References
Augustyn, J. (2017). Emerging science and technology trends: 2017-2047: A synthesis of
leading forcast. Retrived August 13, 2018 from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/1043071.pdf

Kola, A. J. (2013). Importance of Science Education to National Development and Problems
Militating Against Its Development.  American Journal of educational research. 1(7), 225-229. Retrieved August 12, 2018 from http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/7/2.


Tuesday, December 18, 2018

5:11:00 AM

Implications of Socio-economic Characteristics for Educational Reforms in Pakistan

Improvement in economic conditions is important for development. For the purpose of capitalizing improved economic conditions, it is essential to be aware of the relationship between social and economic policies and reinforcing their amalgamation. In Pakistan, due to feeble governance for a longer period of time, social sector development has not been given much attention leading towards underdeveloped human capital (State Bank report, 2016-17). The status of socio-economic characteristics such as population, literacy rat, employment, poverty, access to health facilities and  their implications for educational reforms are discussed in detailed as follow.      
Demography 
It is said that increasing population reinforces poverty and therefore, low fertility rate remains a key element in reducing poverty. In Pakistan, fertility has been reported as declining after 1990s but population growth rate is within the region is relatively very high. Currently, Pakistan stands on number 7 in terms of larger populated countries in the world and stand on fourth in Asia. Although the population growth rate is falling in Pakistan but the swiftness and size of fertility move is slow than neighboring countries. Pakistan’s efficiency in improvement in total fertility rate per decade is not encouraging. Thus, it can be deduced that declining birth and death rates are not important ingredients of economic development but population polices have necessarily a key role in declining birth and death rates (SBP, 2016-17). With this increased population growth rates, educational policy makers can get insights in providing necessary education facilities looking at the trends in population and their projection in future. For example, mobility ratios of masses from and towards a particular area will indicate whereby educational policy makers and planners will plan such a way that in future their planned educational facilities will cover up the projected population of that particular area. The slower fertility move has substantial implications for educational reforms brought about by looking into higher dependency ratio. High dependency ration affects the pattern of consumption of educational facilities as well as quality of life. Therefore, educational reformers need to keep such types of trends in mind while providing education services to the masses.
Employment  
According to the Human Development Report (2017), in Pakistan, increasing population affects employment negatively and which is because the poor interplay of demography, economy, social status and political conditions.  The rate of unemployment in Pakistan has increased. Females are more unemployed than males and it is predicted that this scenario of unemployment will persisted until a significant increase in economic growth and investment.  How to increase economic growth and investment will be answered by reformers in education system. Through educational reforms interaction of demographic, economic, social and political factors will be ensured.
Literacy rate
Literacy rate is a major socio-economic characteristic which impacts significantly other indicators of human development. According to Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey (2015), the literacy rate increased up to 60 percent. However, difference is significant between male (70 percent) and female (49 percent) as well as rural and urban areas 76 percent and 51 percent respectively (Ministry of Finance, 2016). The literacy rate with respect to other regions of South Asia is far behind. This situation puts a challenging situation for the policy makers and educational planners to meet the level of the regions with same geographical and climatic factors.
Education
In education sector the success is measured by gross enrolment ratio (GER) which in Pakistan is 89 percent. It is calculated by the ratio between the number of students attending primary schools and number of children aged 5 to 9. Net enrollment ratio (NER) which is 57 percent in Pakistan is calculated by the number of children attending age 5 to 9 divided by the number of same age for the same level of education. High GER indicates that the country is performing well in terms of primary education. However, Pakistan needs to work hard to achieve this target. Comparing with neighboring countries shows that Pakistan is left behind which indicates that education sector is given less attention while devising economic policies. The concern is that the low quality of education does not match with the required skills in market leading towards lower rate of return in human capital. Thus, reformers in education need to bring reforms in providing missing facilities, teacher training, design engaging curricula, ensure community involvement and so on to achieve very high level in education sector (Ministry of Finance, 2016).
Health
According to UNDP (2017), health sector is another socio-economic characteristic which includes infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, access to basic health services and expenditure on health care. Quality of basic health facilities is indicated by low infant mortality rate. In Pakistan, infant mortality rate is 29 per 1000 which have reduced but still needs to combat with. Mostly infant moralities are due to unhygienic food, infectious diseases, malnutrition, and lack of health education particularly of mothers. Maternal mortality rate ranges between 35 and 50. Pakistan falls on a medium category on health index with 0.79 in 2015. Life expectancy at birth is about 65 years in Pakistan has which has improved from earlier years. However, regarding health index Pakistan is behind in relation to other countries in the region. These analyses have implications to improve health conditions through health education and awareness programmes by policy makers and reformers.
Poverty 
Poverty is measured by estimation of the number of people living below poverty line that is the minimum level of income of an individual or household. Poverty has increased in Pakistan after 1990s because of poor initiatives by democratic governments to reduce poverty. It is also because of people’s inability to access public goods and services. Increasing poverty is explained by the trends in income inequality that largely follow the economic growth rates. However, poverty declined after 2000. According to Pakistan Economic Survey, 2017-18, poverty has declined from 50.4 percent in 2005-06 to 24.3 percent in 2015-16 (Yousafzai, 2018). There are strong implications for reformers in education in order to reduce poverty through increasing access, equity and relevance to the masses at a larger extent.

References

Brennan, J. (2008). Higher education and social change. High Educ. 56:382-393. Retrieved

Ministry of finance, (2016). Education. Retrieved August 05, 2018 from

Patil, N. P. (2012). Role of education in social change. International educational e-journal.
1(2). 205-210. Retrieved August 02, 2018, from http://www.oiirj.org/ejournal/Jan-Feb-Mar2012IEEJ/38.pdf

Tilak, J. B. G. (1994). Education for development in Asia. New Delhi: sage publications.
Qureshi, M. (2005). Social aspects of Education. New Delhi: Anmole publications
Sara, N. (2015). Social change and women.  International Research Journal of Social
Sciences. 4(12), 46-48. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from at: www.isca.in

United Nation Development Programme. (2017). Pakistan national human development
report 2017. (2847). Retrieved August 06, 2018 from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/2847/pk-nhdr.pdf

Yousafzai, F. (2018, April 27). Poverty goes down more than 50 percent. The nation.
Retrieved August 12, 2018 from https://nation.com.pk



Friday, December 7, 2018

6:17:00 AM

Relationship between education and social change


Education is considered as the most significant agency of learning social values. Therefore, educational institutions play the role of agent in socialization of the individuals. There are three aspects namely change agents, subject matter for bringing about social change and the cultural background of learners while declaring education as a gadget of social change. .  
Education is the process during which knowledge is acquired, skills are developed, values and traits are internalized through experiences. Education is an important source of economic and technological development in a society to create a true democratic atmosphere. For economic and social development, the individuals are expected be skillful, knowledgeable and competent and should have human values. Educational process ensures the mentioned requirements of the economic progress of a society.
Social change in a society is defined as the change in the minds and habits, belief systems, life styles, culture of the people.  These changes occur due to globalization, rapid developments in science and technology, changes in the work place and changes of the roles of the state.
There is a significant relationship between social change and education that education makes the individuals useful citizens, self reliant and independent learners through providing opportunities to experience citizenship, self reliance and independence. These characteristics are supportive of social change.
The people who acted as social reformers in social structure were educated who emphasized to change negative practices such as caste restrictions, inequality between male and female. They also emphasized others to eradicate socially evil customs and traditions. They worked for equality of male and female, improve governance of the state, establish democratic culture in institutions. Liberal philosophy was taught by them in order to bring about social change in society. Thus, education is regarded as a catalyst to spread social values in order to prepare individuals for social change during which unnecessary social practices could be minimized. Through education economy increase, justice is distributed, people participate in decision making, scientific technology is adopted in industries, agriculture and other professions which lead towards modernization. The relationship between education and social change is mutual. Sometimes, social change influences changes in educational processes. For example, development in information technology influences educational system as now a day assessment system is based on information technology skills. Numerous software have been developed which are widely used in education. The good example of it is the use of multimedia for presentations in educational institutions. 
Education plays an important role in social change as it carries on the everlasting values among the individuals in society these values then become the base for social change. For example, internet has revolutionized the world through which people within a very short time obtain useful and required knowledge on certain topics. Therefore, education highlights the values of using internet and enables the individuals use internet for their benefits.
Women empowerment is a type of social change which is because of educating the masses regarding the importance of women empowerment. Through empowerment women are given with equal status, rights and opportunities to step forward. It was because of the change in minds and beliefs of the people that education of females is considered important as education of male. This social change has taken palace because of awareness due to education.  Education makes it possible to improve social and economical status of women. On the other hand, social change has made visible that education of females is important to develop the society economically and socially. The people get motivated towards female education due to the change of status of women and their benefit for the society. Thus, social change creates opportunities for education.
The role of education in decreasing rate of population growth is remarkable. Education plays the role of most effective contraceptive. The knowledge of regulating fertility through contraception increases with increasing number of school years for girls. Females having jobs spend more time in their workplaces but less time available for children and much greater incentive to have few children. Time required to receive education also delays the age of marriage. Education also empowers and liberates females willing to use modern contraceptive methods, to convince their husbands to decide on small family norms and to speak out openly to defend their reproductive rights. There is link between education and family planning.
In short, education develops capacities of the individuals to accept social change. After social change its impact is evaluated through the techniques which are guided by education. Education helps people to understand nonconstructive traditions and practices to be avoided and constructing new practices to be adopted which leads towards social change.

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

7:23:00 AM

Emergence of futurology: A discipline and its role in education planning


The term futurology also known as futures studies discusses what will be happening in future and decision making accordingly. Futurology is defined as the study of formulating educated presumptions which will probably and preferably prove to be true in future. According to Bhaskaran (2006), the roots of futurology can be found back in the age of Torrah and Bible having their own prophesies. Then in 16th century, prophesies of Nostradamus about many things got attentions of the people and some of them are still awaited to be unveil. Jules Verne talked about a journey to the moon of a space-craft in 1865 where he predicted the speed, take off and landing venues as Florida and Pacific respectively which came to be true exactly after one century and three years in 1968. Another thrust to the futurology in 19th century was the publication of HG Wells about the expectancies towards the development of science and technology and its effects on human lives.
In twentieth century, futurology emerged as a discipline with a new pattern of thinking of futurists particularly Alvin Toffler and John Naisbitt who tried to make predications on the basis of understanding of nature systematically and scientifically. The World War II also contributed futurology to be emerged as a discipline when American forces felt the need of knowing things which never existed and not known up to then such as new technologies, nuclear exchanges and their effects on human lives and environment across the world (Bhaskaran, 2006).
 In futurology as a discipline, the futurists carry out futures studies in three paradigms namely descriptive paradigm, scenario paradigm and evolutionary research study paradigm. Kuosa (2011) elaborated that in descriptive paradigm, futurists make probable predictions on the basis of developments took place in past. A static and optimistic thinking produces a predictive future to be foreseen by the futurists. Research studies comprised well phrased and clear objectives with quantitative research in a short period of time.  In scenario paradigm, the researchers put forward things while explaining the way things will happen in future.  The scenario they present is not on the basis of its suitability to predict but on its suitability to value addition to the process of existing decision making visualizing possibility and introducing explorations of the foreseen development. On the other hand, the evolutionary futures research paradigm allows futurists to endeavor to describe and understand what will be happening in the days ahead in uncertain world with higher accuracy on the basis of evolutionary laws.
There are three phases futurology as a discipline has passed through; the first phase consists of twenty years comprising 1940s and 1950s. This era of futurology is considered as golden time of planning, quantitative methods, positivism, global trade and financing. It was a time to emerge potentials towards scientific and technological development and economic growth through urbanization, industrialization and globalization. Such a triggering situation demanded for an organized long term planning, exploring trends and technological future insights and needs assessment. The second phase of future studies includes 1960s and 1970s called the age of international future research movement because the future research practice spread beyond American military futurists due to increased awareness of the trends for future studies (Kuosa, 2011). Ossip Flechtheim wrote a book on futurology and suggested to solve human problems related to averting wars and peace, stopping famine and poverty, avoiding oppression and offensive actions, supporting democratic practices, preservation of natural resources and so on (Poli, 2011). The third phase starts from 1980s and continues up to the present age. In this phase new methods for future studies is observed to be ceased relating it to the second paradigm of future studies.  A small number of methods in futures research methodology have been developed which is too less than what was expected during the second phase. In this phase the field of future studies got stabled as many institutions offered courses related to future studies and many dissertations related to the field were produced. The filed got identity in discussions as a regular topic in journals related to futurology.
An analysis of the emergence of futurology as a discipline reveals that prophecies of the past, current directions and future forecasting are considered as a unitary move forward it serves three major areas of research objectives in futures studies (Kuosa, 2011). The three major areas provide a base for implications of futurology for educational planning. The first area is about developing vision and setting aims, goals and objectives which are at the heart of educational planning. If vision building and setting aims and objectives are based on systematic future studies then the achievement of vision, aims and objective are almost be ensured. For example, looking at the needs and demands of the society where the individuals want to be in future, educational institutions will develop their vision, aims and objectives with the help of futures studies. The second major area of the research objectives in futures studies is the contributing towards planning and decision making. Thus, futurology plays a vital role in educational planning and decision making during devising policies for education and curriculum development. For example, looking at the mobility of masses towards or away and their projections which will be explored by futurist, educational planners will decide to open or close educational facilities in certain areas. Third area of future research is solving global problems of humankind. That means in research and development activities, futurology plays the role of helping hand. On the basis of forecasting by futurology many educational problems are attempted to be addressed by educationist. Without authentic sources it is difficult to make decisions for future regarding education thus futurology attempts to address the requirement. Education is supposed to develop abilities among young generation to enable those to be adjusted with the times in future so educational leaders, managers, policy makers need to be aware with essential trends to achieve desired objectives. 
Inayatullah (2008) proposed six pillars of future thinking for transformation namely mapping, anticipating, timing, deepening, creating alternatives and transforming. All these shared pillars are the agenda of education that mapping means here an assessment of the current situation and setting goals to be achieved in future. Anticipating refers to identify opportunities and threats regarding the set goals and proactively planning strategies to address those opportunities and threats. Timing the future implies identification of strategies and every possible creative model of change within the society. Next pillar which is deepening the future is about harnessing the solutions to anticipated problems so that proactively mistakes related to transformation process could be tackled. Fifth pillar discusses creating alternatives in structural roles. For example in an educational organization, the roles of administrators, teachers and students may be challenged and suggested alternative roles to existing roles. Important thing is to develop an organizational functions chart followed by searching new structures to employ in those functions. The last pillar to future thinking is transforming the future which is through narrowing down to a preferred future by analyzing scenarios, questioning and creative visualization. There are insights and implication in these pillars for education planning to transform the society. Educational planning involves vision building, setting aims, goals and objectives, selecting and organizing strategies to achieve the vision, devising evaluative procedures to supervise the process, resource allocation and so on are much related to the six pillars of future thinking.
In short, futurology and education are two sides of the same coin. In futurology, probable and preferred predictions are made on the basis of analysis of past events and current trends. The analysis and study current trends are supported by education through suggesting tools and techniques. On the other hand, there insights and implications for educational planning in futurology which ensures the planning to be relevant and meaningful because in futurology, facta and futura (Poli, 2011) means current trends, practices, traditions and their effects on future respectively both are carefully postulated. It can be said that futurology and education are supplementary to each other.
References
Bhaskaran, P. B. (2006). Futurology: In perspective. ICFAI Journal of management research.
Retrieved August 03, 2018 from http://balabhaskaran.tripod.com/perspective.pdf

Inayatullah, S. (2008). Six pillars: future thinking for transformation. Foresight. 10(1).

Kuosa, T. (2011). Evolution of future studies. Futures: The journal of policy, planning and
future studies. 43(3). Retrieved July 30, 2018 from

Poli, R. (2011). Step towards an explicit ontology of the future. Journal of future studie.